The global luxury hotel industry size is projected to reach USD 238.49 Billion by 2028, exhibiting a CAGR of 10.4% during the forecast period.  Diagnoses this industry in its research, titled “Luxury Hotel Industry, 2021-2028”, which also states that the industry value stood at USD 93.43 Billion in 2020.

Ascent of Eco-obliging Rich Hotels to Accelerate the Business

The improvement of lodgings coordinated by the norms of regular practicality has altered perceptions including excess offices. The rising normal awareness among stylish explorers has reconsidered the components as of not long ago managing the friendliness business, provoking the improvement of eco-obliging sumptuous housing brands. For example, the Andaz Maui at Wailea Resort in Hawaii has been considered to restrict waste and surges.

The lodging incorporates a daylight based water radiator structure and variable speed chillers, while in the in-room settings, the china is created utilizing reused materials close by robotized temperature controls. Moreover, at the Saffire Freycinet in Tasmania, Australia, Modwood is used as a wood substitute, Drove development is broadly used to make the entire office energy-successful, and typical cycle wind current structures have furthermore been presented. The creating popularity of such premium properties in amazing regions is set to accelerate the expansion of this industry.

Considering room type, the business has been apportioned into excess, upper-upscale, and upscale. By characterization, the business has been segmented into chain and independent. In view of geography, this industry has been confined into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, and the Middle East and Africa.

This assessment offers a quick and dirty examination of the different business drivers and examples, close by a wary examination of the different business limits. Moreover, the investigation contains an expansive evaluation of the nearby components of the business, as well as a start to finish evaluation of the serious scene of the business. Despite these components, the assessment supplies a careful evaluation of all industry pieces.

Covid to Make All over Wobbliness in the Convenience Business

The rich housing industry improvement should contract as a result of the Covid pandemic, with an industry enlisting an amazing rot of 60.82% in 2020 and showing up at a value of USD 119.55 billion out of 2021. One basic legitimization for this marvelous decrease in the convenience business is the unstable drop in traveler practices all over the planet. As per the evaluations conveyed by the UN World The movement business Affiliation (UNWTO), exchange earnings from traveler appearances fell by around USD 910 billion to 1.2 trillion out of 2020, potentially getting the overall GDP by 1.5% to 2.8%. Lodgings, explicitly, have been the hardest hit. For example, according to the American Motel and Lodging Connection (AHLA), 71% of lodgings will not get through the accompanying a half year without government help and 77% should lay-off workers. Rich housing organizations, similar to Le Meridien, have moreover relied upon cost-cutting, given the new travel blacklists and the opportunity of advancement impediments. Altogether, industrys related with the development, the movement business, and friendliness industry are set to enter a period of significant financial load by ethicalness of the Coronavirus.

High Spending Breaking point of Wayfarers to Fuel the Business in North America

Maintained by a high consuming capacity of buyers, North America is supposed to overpower the sumptuous hotel industry share during the check time span. An investigation by the US Travel Association showed that in 2019, local explorers spent USD 972 billion, of which by and large 25% was spent on lodging workplaces. Besides, utilizations on lodgings and resorts of both local and worldwide explorers rose by 4.1% in 2019 from 2018 levels, as per the assessment, exhibiting serious solid areas for a to spend on journeys by customers. The North America industry size stayed at USD 30.66 Billion out of 2020.

In Europe, the business will participate in a period of upheld improvement as the central area is home to some most charming traveler puts on the planet. The UNWTO, for instance, saw that Europe addressed practically half of all traveler appearances from one side of the planet to the other in 2018. In Asia Pacific, on the other hand, the expanding upper-common laborers and average masses are pulling overall extravagant housing organizations to spread out their presence in countries like India, China, and Indonesia.

Focal individuals to Tap Important entryways in Making Industrys

With the lifestyle changing in the emerging industrys of Asia and Africa, rich housing brands are really improving their presence and assignments in these countries. A couple of housing networks are considering new offers and making unprecedented economy segments and organizations to attract wayfarers and get comfortable their regional position.

Writing A Statement: 4 Steps To The Perfect Text

Writing A Statement: 4 Steps To The Perfect Text

The statement is a text in which you have to take a position on a certain topic and underpin your opinion with various arguments. Since you have to write a statement not only in high school, but also in many later life situations such as a car accident, at work or in a legal dispute, here are some tips on how best to take a stand. You will know about writing a statement.

Write a statement – even in the event of an accident

When writing a statement, the main thing is that you inform another party of your point of view or your position on a certain topic. On the other hand, it is also the goal to convince your counterpart of your point of view. It is therefore important that you argue as clearly and logically as possible and make it clear to your counterpart or the reader why your opinion is the better. The statement can also be in several forms, such as a letter to the editor, a comment, a complaint or a request.

Building an opinion

Before writing, you should first make it clear in which context your statement should appear and which addressees you have. Should this go to one person or are several parties involved? Say, for example, an expert or lawyer reads your statement or is the statement important to a large readership, like a letter to the editor about an article?

The second step in preparation is all about getting your point of view clear. Think carefully and develop your opinion in the form of a thesis that you want to and can represent.

Then you should make a collection of materials and collect ideas. If you have a piece of text like a newspaper article, you should read it well. A detailed discussion of the topic is also important for other topics. At this point, for example, you could already collect your first thoughts on your arguments, which you then later work out in detail in the main part of the statement and build on each other according to strength and logic. As a guideline, you should have at least three arguments that you can refer to.


  • Have I read and understood the text often enough?
  • Is my main thesis clear to me?
  • Have I collected at least three arguments?
  • Have I structured the text and made notes about it?

Write an introduction to the opinion

In the introductory part of the opinion what happens in most formal and informal texts happens. First, describe your concern with an introductory sentence. The opening sentence usually answers the classic W questions. Who wrote the text? When was the text written? What exactly is the subject of the text? Where was the article published? What is the title of the text? What kind of text is there? In addition, at the beginning of the text you state that you would like to take a position on a certain part of the text or facts and outline your argumentation structure and your opinion on the thesis. In short, you address who is taking a stand on what topic and why. In the next step you clarify your thesis,


  • Have I answered all of the questions?
  • Have I already gone into my thesis?
  • Have I made it clear what I am taking a stand on?
  • I have clearly worked out my thesis.

Write the main part of the opinion

The main part is the heart of your opinion. Here you write your arguments in detail and thus represent your thesis. As you write, make sure that you start with the weakest argument and then work your way up to the strongest argument. As a guideline for the length of a text, three arguments usually represent a good amount. Of course, you can also write more or less, but then there is the risk that your argumentation will either appear too thin or too small or that you will overwhelm the reader with your opinion. Three clearly structured and understandable arguments are usually sufficient. In order to organize the arguments and to see through them better, here is an overview of different types of arguments.

Facts argument

As the name suggests, you are citing incontrovertible facts to support your argument. This form of argument is a particularly strong way of expressing your opinion and could be at the end of the statement. The factual argument is so strong because it cannot be refuted, since an irrefutable fact is used to support the argument.

Example: You need more energy to climb the Eiffel Tower than to climb the Cologne Cathedral, because the Eiffel Tower is almost twice as high.

Writing A Statement: 4 Steps To The Perfect Text

Authoritarian argument

The authoritarian argument is not as strong as the factual argument, but it can still be very convincing. Here you can use the trick of backing up your argument with the testimony of a certain recognized authority. The more recognized or prestigious the reference, the stronger the argument appears. However, you should make sure that the authority you have consulted is also recognized as an authority by the recipients of your opinion.

Example: According to the consumer advice center, certain craft businesses are not recommended.

Indirect argument

The indirect argument can be a very clever trick of yours to override an argument of the other side. Because that’s exactly what you’re doing here. You take up part of the argument or the text and refute it with your own argument. This can make your argument relatively powerful.

Example: Many educators claim that comics destroy the ability to read a text. But the fact is that, according to many scientists, comics often make learning easier.

Normative argument

This argument is also of a relatively strong variety, as you are using normative ideas to support your argument. Here, too, similar to the authoritarian argument, the effectiveness of such an argument also depends on the recipient recognizing the cited norm as such.

Example: Respecting the freedom of the press is one of the basic values ​​of a free and enlightened society.

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Plausibility argument

This form of argument is also relatively strong, but is not based on facts, so you have to be careful how you phrase it here. The basic idea is that you underpin your argument with an explanation that appears plausible and logical to the other person or the reader of the statement.

Example: I always start my working day with demanding tasks, because I am much fitter and more productive in the morning than after five hours of work.

The different types of arguments give you an overview of how you can build arguments and, above all, sort them by strength. At the end, of course, there should always be a factual argument if possible. It is also best if you almost exclusively collect factual arguments.


  • Have I adequately substantiated and supported the arguments?
  • Have I built up the arguments according to strength and logically?
  • Have I saved the strongest argument for last?
  • Is my strongest argument a factual argument?

Write the final part of the statement

At the end of the text, the entire statement is briefly summarized again. So you go back to the initial thesis and touch on one or the other argument. Last but not least, you now write suggestions on how a solution to a problem could look or how you would approach the matter differently.

Writing A Bachelor Thesis: Tips On Finding A Topic, Structuring And Working Out

Writing A Bachelor Thesis

You have all credit points together, the necessary events have been attended. Now all you need to finish your bachelor’s degree is writing – and depending on the university, defending your bachelor thesis. This is usually the longest academic paper you have had to write to date. Depending on the university, this is around 40 pages of continuous text. That sounds like a lot of work at first. But at the same time you get the opportunity to study a topic of your choice in depth and to show what you have learned. We’ll give you useful tips to make your thesis a complete success and to make writing fun.content

Bachelor thesis: The last thesis to be completed

The terms “bachelor thesis” and “bachelor thesis” are synonymous. They designate the thesis, which not only makes up part of your final grade, but may also be the last scientific work in your life. For many students, they go straight to work after completing their bachelor’s thesis. It is not uncommon for employers to ask in the job interview what the topic and grade of the thesis was.

The bachelor thesis is suitable for really stepping on the gas again and improving your editing. The motivation here is higher than with other study achievements and exams. It’s the last chance and a great feeling when you can be proud of your bachelor thesis at the end of the day. For this reason, many students have them printed not only for the university but also for themselves.

Finding a topic for the bachelor thesis

Find a topic that interests you. After all, you have to deal with it for a few weeks. Think about it: What questions did you always ask yourself during your studies? You could pursue this in your work. Which era, direction, which research area did you enjoy working with, for which seminar or internship were you hooked? Read through a few articles from reference books about it and research library databases and catalogs to see if there is any literature on your question.

When doing your research, make sure that you concentrate on a sub-area early on. Ask yourself whether you can deal with the topic in the time you have and within the given number of pages. First of all, inquire about the formal requirements for your subject (font size, font, number of pages).

Don’t forget to take notes

Discuss your topic and your question with your supervisor. You should be familiar with the topic by the time you go to the consultation. This will help you get the most out of the conversation. Don’t be afraid to ask questions during or afterwards. Also follow up on vague literature recommendations and write down the title and author. Generally, take notes during the conversation.

Formulate theses and questions in writing. Adjust these again and again if your level of knowledge of the topic changes and you realize that a different formulation would be better. It helps to talk to others about it. These can also be non-specialists. The questions from others can help to clarify the research question or open a view of what is actually of interest to you in the topic that you have envisaged.

Clustering makes it easier to focus the question

Writing a bachelor thesis: Clustering in preparation

Concentrate on a question within your topic by clustering. This technique from the field of creative writing comes from Gabriele L. Rico. It lets creativity and analytical thinking work together. It also allows you to concentrate better on a certain sub-area. Associatively associated words are thought out and written down on the basis of a key word. The relationship of the words to one another is marked by lines that circled words. Decide what interests you most and based on that, make associations again. After a few steps, write a text about your clustering.

Ask yourself what fascinates you about your topic and what irritates you. An interesting question can also develop from these points. But test through literature research whether the answer to the question can realistically be mastered in a bachelor thesis.

The following method can help you to find a question based on your topic:

The three-step method according to Kate L. Turabian (2007): This allows you to find out what you want to write about while you are writing.

  1. Formulate your topic, i.e. what you are writing about. Start the sentence with: “I am working on / investigating / writing about …”
  2. Add a question, i.e. what you want to find out in the work:

    Complete the above sentence with the words: “… because I want to find out / understand / understand …”
  3. Now define the goal of your investigation. Why do you want to know what you described above?

    Continue the sentence again: “… to consider / determine / check …”

Convert the question formulated in the second point to a question phrase.

Convert the goal written down under point three into a statement, which you introduce as follows: “The goal of my work is …”. From this you can derive your working hypothesis. Start with: “I assume that …”.

Structure of the bachelor thesis

To create an outline for your bachelor thesis, you should already have developed a problem-oriented question. Because this is the best way to come up with an argument with which you want to answer it.

If you have already got an overview of the literature on your question using standard works, internet research and an initial bibliography: Make a list with the aspects that you have already found out. In a second step, group them and think about which topics belong together, have to be dealt with one after the other in a structure or explained in the introduction. Arrange the literature that could help you with your argument under the (sub) headings of your outline.

One way, after reading a basic work on the subject, can be to only read through texts that support your line of argument. This saves time and saves you from constantly finding new aspects that are certainly very interesting, but only distract you from your question. Also calculate how you want to weight your work and consider how many pages you will need for each sub-item. In this way you can set yourself small work goals for the development phase and achieve interim successes that further motivate you.

Writing A Bachelor Thesis

Elaboration of the bachelor thesis

Gradually fill in your outline with text. But make sure that you write through one after the other and ideally also in one go, so that the argumentation process of the work remains fluid and you avoid repetitions. To stay tuned, you can first write a rough draft and revise it in a second round. You should also divide the revision process: first comes the content, then the language and style, and finally the form. If you want to do everything at once, you won’t get anywhere.

Write the main part before the introduction

The order of the parts is as follows: First write the main part, then the introduction and finally the conclusion. Only when the main part is finished will you know what you are getting the reader into with the introduction. In addition, the introduction should be particularly handy so that it makes you want to continue reading. In addition, someone who just skips the work will definitely read the introduction and the end. So in these parts, the work should make a particularly good impression and be very informative.

Your bachelor thesis should show the following: You can independently work on a question in your subject using scientific methods within a limited period of time. This period varies between six and twelve weeks, depending on the subject. So make yourself a schedule. When you have registered the work, you will be given a fixed submission date. But even if you haven’t already done so, you should set yourself a deadline. This helps you to work consistently on the progress of your work and gives you the necessary discipline. You can also argue better when others want to use you for leisure activities and favors, or when your best friend has acute lovesickness again. “I have to finish my theoretical part today” sounds more convincing than: “I have to learn”. You plan half the time you have for writing the rough draft. A quarter of it for correction and revision.

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Hypothesis: 4 Types + Interpretation Hypothesis Explained In 3 Steps

Morning letters to resolve blockages

Promote your thinking because thinking and writing are closely related. So that you can express what you are thinking more directly, use the exercise on the morning pages: Just write down what comes to mind by hand for half an hour every day. If you can’t think of anything, write that down too. Over time, writing down your own thoughts will become more fluid and writing your scientific text will also be easier for you.

Let others proofread the bachelor thesis, preferably several people. You could also give them different tasks, like having someone review the content and the other reviewing the language. Make appointments with the reviewers in advance. This will help you stick to the schedule. Allow the others enough time for the correction and also remember that you have to incorporate the corrections afterwards, which can also take time.

Careful scientific work is mandatory

Who said what It is essential to present this clearly in scientific work. This makes it clear that you have informed yourself about the relevant literature and what you have to say about it. Differentiate and mark the following text elements in the bachelor thesis:

  • Direct quotations are highlighted by layout or quotation marks, depending on their length.
  • Indirect quotations can be identified with formulations such as: “Meyer’s approach says that …”
  • You make paraphrases as such clear by describing the author’s position in your own words and naming the author or by prefixing “cf.” or “cf.” for “compare” in the following reference.
  • Mark your own statements by introducing “in my opinion …” or “in my opinion …” accordingly in the text.

When dealing with other academic texts, you should not freeze in awe. Through your bachelor thesis, you enter into a scientific conversation with others who have researched on this topic. Summarize what others have written in your own words. Most of the time, the content is easier to remember. Take a position on this. That takes courage. Because you are already familiar with your topic, you are (also) an expert in it and you can allow yourself to take your own position.

Writing A Master’s Thesis: Tips On Finding A Topic, Structuring And Working Out

Writing a master's thesis

At the end of your master’s degree, you should write a scientific paper. In it, you will independently work on a question using scientific methods. So much for the theory. But what does the practice look like? The writing a master’s thesis is little tricky. If you follow a few tips, you can successfully complete your master’s thesis.

Finding a topic for the master’s thesis

The master’s thesis does not only differ from the bachelor’s thesis in terms of scope . There are also differences to be taken into account when it comes to finding a topic.

Your topic should be able to be integrated into the professional world. The master’s thesis should therefore answer a research-relevant question. In doing so, you show that you are familiar with the current research discourse. To do this, you should make your scientifically justified statement that does not duplicate previous work. Therefore, to find the topic of your master’s thesis, do not just read standard works, but also find out about current trends and work.

Scientifically compatible, also for the dissertation

While the bachelor thesis has a rather closed question on the topic, the master thesis sometimes goes beyond itself: It can serve as a scientifically connectable preparatory work for the doctoral thesis. Therefore, you should choose the topic and question in such a way that you could expand it to a dissertation.

In some subjects it is only possible to work on an empirical topic in the master’s thesis, i.e. to collect data and build your hypothesis on it. This usually leads to an extension of the processing time that the examination office allows you.

The master’s thesis as an applicatio

The master’s thesis as a door opener to your dream job

Even if you don’t want to stay at the university: where you want to go after your master’s can be an orientation for finding a topic. If you would like to go in a certain direction professionally or have a special industry in mind, it could be useful for later applications if you have already dealt with it scientifically. While doing your research, you might make useful contacts. Your subject-related knowledge may also later be a unique selling point on the job market.

Stay curious about the topic of your master’s thesis. Discuss it with others, attend events outside of the university that deal with your area of ​​interest. Check out websites and check publications for new articles. If necessary, subscribe to news feeds for your literature search on the website of your university library.

Choose a supervisor and narrow down the topic

First, find out basic information about the topic of your master’s thesis using reference works. Here you may find references to standard works on your area of ​​interest. Research in parallel, but in other ways, to ensure that you have current work at hand.

Find a supervisor who is familiar with the subject area by researching their research areas on the internet. Make your interest clear by going to the consultation hour prepared and informed. Prepare a preliminary bibliography and have already read basic texts. This also makes the conversation more productive for you because you can ask more specific questions.

Narrow down your topic by asking a specific question. The question is, so to speak, your tool with which you develop subject areas and scientific texts. The so-called “three-step technique” by Kate L. Turabian (2007) can help to develop a question from your topic.

Then ask specific questions for the titles that relate to your question. Follow this principle both when researching, to decide whether you need a title or not, and when reading the texts themselves.

Structure of the master’s thesis

Building on the question, you can structure your master’s thesis. Divide your main question into small sub-questions that you plan to answer in the text. Divide the answers in turn into theses, which you justify with your findings and text passages.

Based on the knowledge you already have about the topic, you can develop an argumentation structure with which you can support your working hypothesis. In the end, there has to be a common thread running through all the work that leads to a result. The common thread makes the result understandable for the reader.

Organize knowledge using visualization and clustering

Organize your knowledge by using visualization techniques such as “clustering” or mind maps. Write key statements behind which you note the literature that support your theses or that are important for this part. Number the cluster or mind map groups that appear to belong together. You can then break down the cluster groups in a linear order that is required in the outline.

Use literature organization programs to organize literature references according to bullet points. You can also connect article files and access links directly to it. Depending on the program, this will help you to sort your notes and excerpts and to find them again using the search function.

If you prefer to argue in writing, there is also the option of writing a draft and deriving an outline for your master’s thesis from it.

When formulating headings, think about the best way for a reader in a hurry to get to the right passage. Have someone unfamiliar with the subject proofread your drafts.

One paragraph, one function

Ask yourself which function a certain paragraph takes on in the overall text of the master’s thesis. It should only contain one topic or argument. Break the paragraph down into a summarizing “topic sentence” and the rest to explain it. As a role model, look at the subdivision of text sections in recognized specialist journals. For each paragraph, ask yourself what function it fulfills.

Think about how many pages you need for which part. This can help you keep track of the effort for all of the work.

If you notice in the course of your work that certain aspects are much more important and your reasoning changes, adjust the structure.

Use flowcharts to graphically visualize your line of argument. One argument is written down in successive fields connected by arrows. This can also serve to illustrate the reasoning in the work itself.

Writing a masters thesis

Elaboration of the master’s thesis

As you write, keep a research journal in which you write down thoughts, goals, progress and ideas away from the scientific text. This motivates and helps you to deal with your text and your research again on a higher level and to work in a more result-oriented manner. The meta-reflection helps identify dead ends and unnecessary hard work. But it can also be very motivating. Science fiction writer Octavia E. Butler wrote in her notebook: “My book will be read by millions of people!”

Create a schedule for your master’s thesis that you use the structure as a guide. Set smaller interim goals and work towards achieving them. Think of rewards for achieving these goals.

Looking for a writing partner, trying out writing times

Try different writing times and see when you can concentrate well. Once you have found these, set your schedule so that you always write at these times if possible.

Find writing partners with whom you meet to work, but don’t let others dissuade you from your work rhythm when things are going well.

First write the main part, then the introduction, then the conclusion.

Master’s thesis: This belongs in the introduction, main part, and conclusion

In the introduction to  the master’s thesis, you present the problem, the current state of research regarding the problem, the methods you will use and your research interests.

Basically define all central terms, which you will complete in the course of the work. Make sure that you don’t leave out anything that is important to the topic. However, do not raise any questions that are not answered in the course of your work.

The main part of  the master’s thesis includes the reasoning that proves your working hypothesis. Every part of the job should help. What does not serve this purpose is thrown out. Each thesis must be accompanied by research literature, quotes from primary texts or collected data and thus justified. With this you underpin your objective judgment.

On  the one hand, the conclusion of the master’s thesis serves as a summarizing review. Then you get a result from the argument. Put this in relation to what you formulated as a working hypothesis in the introduction and finally embed it in the thematically relevant research context. To what extent is the contribution you make with the help of your work relevant to current research? Here is also the opportunity for an outlook, in case the research result has raised new questions.

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Pay attention to the correct presentation of the data

In empirical work such as the master’s thesis, it is important to divide the presentation of the data from their interpretation and discussion, ideally by dividing them into different sections or chapters.

If you use illustrations in the appendix to the master’s thesis to graphically substantiate the evaluation of your results, label them first. With the figure captions, you should directly state what you want to make clear. After the figures, tables and graphics have been compiled, the results should be explained using texts. The results should be presented without literature references. They will only be discussed in the following discussion chapter.

The discussion chapter can be divided into a discussion of methods and results. State possible weaknesses of the chosen methods or whether different results would have been achieved with other methods. If this has already happened in other studies, state these.

When writing the main part, introduction and conclusion of the master’s thesis, it can be helpful to delimit two different readers. While the main part is written for the knowledgeable readership, in the introduction and conclusion you inform non-specialist interested parties about your work and its results.

Don’t forget to comment on the literature cited. Objectively distance yourself from the statements made therein. This also includes clarifying and classifying technical terms. Explain who shaped them and in which theoretical and historical context they were created.

And finally: have your work proofread. Make fixed appointments for this.

Writing Arguments in 6 Steps + Examples

Writing Arguments in 6 Steps + Examples

The aim of an argument is to create a good overview of a topic and to convince the reader of your opinion. You can find out how you can do this from us. We have the basics, different argument types, an overview of the argument structure, instructions in six steps and numerous examples. We will tell you about writing arguments in 6 steps with examples

Successful reasoning is not only important to convince other people of your opinion. With every decision in life, you have to weigh up for yourself whether you are for or against something. The ability to argue is already practiced in school. In the form of a statement or a discussion , it is important to find arguments and to support your own statement. We’ll show you how to do it.

Basics of reasoning

Basics of reasoning

The foundations of the argument include on the one hand the argument and on the other hand the premise . Premises form the prerequisites for an argument by showing logical conclusions and making it clear to the reader step by step how you build up your argument. Below are some helpful argument types that you can use in your body.

Definition: argument

The term “argument” comes from the Latin term “argumentum” and means something like “statement”, “content” or “evidence” . The verb “argue” comes from the Latin “arguere” which means “to claim”, “to prove” or “to show”. The Latin origin already sums up very well what is meant by an argument.

It is important to convince someone of your point of view with meaningful statements. An argument consists of several premises. These premises should produce as many arguments as possible and lead to a conclusion . You will find out exactly what a premise is in the following chapter.

Definition: premise

A premise is what underlies a particular plan. It is a prerequisite for a statement from which a logical conclusion (conclusion) can be drawn. For example, if you know that all fish live in water (first premise) and that all carp are fish (second premise), you know that all carp live in water (conclusion).

The two premises together with the conclusion make up an argument . Another example is: All dogs bark. All dachshunds are dogs. All the dachshunds bark. A premise doesn’t always have to be true. The indirect proof, for example, assumes a false assumption in order to refute it and thus build up its argument. You can learn more about this in the chapter on argument types.

What a thesis is

A thesis is an assertion, recommendation, evaluation, or judgment . It is set up to begin your argument. The aim is to convince the reader of its validity. The opposite of a thesis is an antithesis. Theses are not just presented as arguments. They are an important part of every job in school or university. You can find out more in the instructions for your argumentation.

Serious argument types

These types of arguments are convincing

How strong your thesis is always depends on your arguments. This is where high quality arguments are most effective. Knowing the types of arguments is helpful for both school and university. You don’t need them just for an argument; and presentations , statements, discussions, factual text analysis and speech analysis benefit from successful arguments. We have provided an example for each of the legitimate argument types.

Authority argument

Latin “argumentum ad verecundiam”, translated “proof through awe” , refers to well-known foundations or reputable personalities such as scientists, experts or politicians. It is slightly less effective than the factual argument based on scientific studies, but it is still very informative. The more reputable your source, the stronger your argument.

Example: “According to Stiftung Warentest, only one of these products does really well.”

Analogizing argument

In the case of an analogizing argument, the topic is linked to another topic and compared. Here, a certain aspect is to be illustrated by the comparison . It is best if the two areas are similar so that they can be compared directly with one another.

Example: “If trams only cost one euro a day in Berlin, as in Vienna, there would be far fewer fare dodgers.”

Factual argument

The factual argument is the strongest argument and should appear at the end of the main part of your argument. It is factual and therefore the least challengeable. The proof can be, for example, a scientific study or a physical law.

Example: “It takes longer to climb the Eiffel Tower than the Cologne Cathedral, since the Eiffel Tower is almost twice as high.”

Indirect argument

An indirect argument is effective in arguing for and against

An indirect argument proves an assertion to the contrary . This type of argument is particularly effective when discussing pros and cons. He benefits from the fact that the other side is debilitated at the same time as your argument is supported.

For example: “Critics claim that books are better suited for learning. The fact is, however, that the grades of the students have improved since the internet came up. “

Plausibility argument

The plausibility argument is quite convincing, but not based on facts. That’s why you should place it in the middle of your argument and think twice about whether your statement is logical. The aim of such an argument is to be plausible to the reader. Your statement must therefore be formulated in a plausible and comprehensible manner and justified.

For example: “Morning people have more energy in the morning, so it is wiser for them to do difficult tasks right in the morning. Night owls can probably start their workday better with lighter tasks immediately after getting up. “

Normative argument (value argument)

The normative argument is based on social norms and moral values . The validity of this depends on the extent to which this standard can be regarded as generally applicable and whether the reader recognizes it or not.

Example: “Raising children should never be accompanied by violence.”

Avoid these types of arguments:

  • Argumentum ad baculum (based on a fear)
  • Argumentum ad misericordiam (relies on pity)
  • Lastly, Argumentum ad populum (based on the public opinion of a majority or a specific person)

Overview of the argumentation structure

The argument structure

An argument is always guided by a thesis . This can either be an assertion, a recommendation, an evaluation or a judgment about something. In school, factual texts are often given to which you should form an opinion . In the event that you are free to choose your topic, you can also propose a thesis on something that concerns you personally, such as the use of smartphones in class or the menu in the cafeteria.

Your argumentation structure always follows a certain order. We have briefly outlined all the work steps of an argument for you and created an overview. You will find detailed instructions with a few tips and examples in the next chapter.

1. Preparation

  • Select and analyze a topic, develop a thesis
  • Collect texts (such as articles, interviews, text passages from specialist books, studies, press releases) that support your thesis

2. Order of the material and structure of the analysis

  • Collect text passages for your arguments and quotes
  • Bullet-point structure , sort arguments, structure the process

3. Introduction

  • Introduction of topic and thesis
  • for example personal experience, event (report) or statistics

4. main part

  • The three Bs: assertion, reason, example
  • the weakest argument first, the strongest last
  • Arguments are either for and against or only refer to one side

5. Conclusion

  • Summary and personal conclusion (only part with your own opinion)
  • Final sentence

6. Revision / correction

  • Check text for errors ( proofreading )
  • Add paragraphs
  • Language should be factual and understandable ( learn to write better )
  • Argumentation should be understandable
  • Connections should be conclusive
Writing Arguments in 6 Steps + Examples

Writing an argument: Instructions in 6 steps

Writing arguments in 6 steps

In this chapter you will find a guide for an argument in six steps. We went through each point and provided a few tips. In general, you should make sure to remain objective and factual until the end . At the end you can then add your own opinion to a personal conclusion. Also, use paragraphs to structure your reasoning so the reader doesn’t get stuck.

To illustrate this, we have provided the instructions with examples . The topic is the debate on the two school systems G8 and G9. We represent the possible point of view that argues for a standardization of G9 in schools . The aim is to find as many arguments as possible for the G9 or against the G8 in order to convince the reader of this opinion.

1. Preparation

If you haven’t given a topic, the first step is to come up with a topic. It is always easier to refer to your own experiences and areas of interest . In schools, factual texts are also often made available, which should be analyzed for their advantages and disadvantages with regard to a topic. If you can choose the topic yourself, you can also choose one side: Are you for or against?

Having a thesis in your head right away will help you to collect the right texts for you from the start. Research articles, press releases or studies that can support your thesis in your argument. One topic could be:

“The nationwide introduction of G9 in high schools.”

2. Order and structure

The most important thing in your argument is a successful structure . This is the only way for the reader to understand your train of thought. From the introduction to the end, everything should best be planned in advance. To do this, you can create a small overview and record in note form what you want to write and where.

3. Introduction

In the introduction you present your topic and note what goal you are pursuing with your argument. Try to make the reader curious about your topic and encourage them to read on.

“The two school systems G8 and G9 have been a topical issue for a long time. While Saxony and Thuringia have consistently operated the abbreviated form in their schools since 1949, the rest of Germany tends to disagree. Since the year 2000 there have been changes again and again that not only cause confusion for parents and students, but also prevent equal opportunities for students. For this reason there should be a nationwide standardization of the school systems on the G9. “

4. main part

The main part consists of several arguments

The main part is the core of your reasoning. This is where you start by making your arguments . You build these up according to the usual pattern of the three Bs: assertion, reason and example . Start with your weakest argument and then work your way up. When discussed, the arguments are also broken down into pros and cons. Make sure to include direct or indirect quotations so that you can substantiate your statements.

Read More

Writing A Thesis: 9 Tips & 7 Typical Mistakes (+ Examples)

Writing Minutes: 6 Ways & 9 Tips For Taking Notes (+ template)

Hypothesis: 4 Types + Interpretation Hypothesis Explained In 3 Steps

Normative argument (weakest argument):

“The intermediate level will be shortened at G8. This means that children are confronted with the abbreviated system from the age of 15 and have to do more than children with G9. But at this age children shouldn’t have to keep an appointment calendar like adults and have to structure their day meticulously. They should still be able to enjoy their childhood. “

Plausibility argument (middle argument):

“As“ Die Zeit ”(No. 43/2016) reports, the widespread changeover to G8 pursued the goal of letting the students work faster and thus relieving the burden on the social systems. They should pay taxes longer and secure their pensions earlier. But this leaves less time for personal development and private interests, because these can later be important for the career choice and the duration of the activity. If the students choose the wrong profession due to a lack of personal interests or if they retire earlier due to stressful stress, nothing is gained with this system. “

Fact argument (strongest argument):

“The German opinion research institute Emnid also confirmed that eight out of ten parents (79 percent) with school-age children prefer G9 to the shortened G8 system. In order to allow German democracy to rule at school level, all federal states should therefore be standardized on the G9. In this way, all children would have the same opportunities to prepare for their career choice and to consolidate their personality. “

5. Conclusion

The end of the summary and conclusion

At the end you summarize everything that has been said so far briefly and concisely. Then you give your result a personal conclusion and conclude your argument with a final sentence.

The summary and conclusion should not consist of mere repetitions of the previous formulations. Try to add some variety and describe your concern in other words. This way your text is even more haunting and you demonstrate eloquence. In addition, you can create important relationships between the individual arguments so that everything fits together more coherently and makes sense to the reader.

“In conclusion, it can be said that the development of children should be in the foreground in our education system and that they should not be responsible for supporting the German social system at such a young age. Moreover, in a performance society in which burnout is no longer a foreign concept, the system should work to protect teachers and students so that they can work through to retirement at all. “

The final sentence should encourage the reader to think about your reasoning and possibly to deal with the topic even more intensively. As a rule, it is a sentence, but sometimes another sentence can lead to the final sentence. In relation to our example topic, it could look like this:

“Many federal states have returned to the G9, which has already proven itself over a long period of time. In order to offer pupils, parents and teachers security again and so that every pupil has the same chance to prepare for their working life, it is high time to introduce G9 uniformly in all federal states. “

6. Revision and correction

The revision of your reasoning is important so that your sentences are coherent and the reader can understand your trains of thought. Also check here what your argumentation ‘looks like’: Are there enough paragraphs and is your text attractive? The correction is intended to eliminate careless mistakes . Especially if your argument is being evaluated, it is worth revising and correcting it. You can decide on one or the other grade point.

Writing A Thesis: 9 Tips & 7 Typical Mistakes (+ Examples)

Writing A Thesis: 9 Tips & 7 Typical Mistakes (+ Examples)

A thesis prepares you for scientific work at the university while you are still at school. We give tips on finding a topic and setting up the work. We also explain which mistakes you should avoid. Writing a thesis with these 9 tips & avoid 7 typical mistakes (+ examples).

Usually you have to write a thesis at some point during your senior years. This is a scientific paper on a specific topic. You either decide for yourself what you want to do in your work or your teacher assigns you a topic. The project serves as preparation for a university career, while you many scientific papers written, for example papers , a thesis and possibly a master’s thesis .

Writing a scientific paper is not that easy. There are a number of points that you need to be aware of. It is important that you have good time management , show patience and do not put yourself under pressure . In the following we give tips with which you will surely succeed in your technical work.

Find topic

Your teacher will help you find a topic

Before you start writing your thesis, of course, you first need a topic. With a few exceptions, you have a free choice. First of all, you should decide on a subject in which you want to write a scientific paper. Pick a subject that you particularly enjoy. In your work you answer a research question that is related to this school subject.

Once you have decided on a subject, you have to come up with a research question for your work. Keep in mind that you can answer the chosen question either with the help of literature research, by carrying out an experiment or a survey. Which method is best depends on your research question. If you have problems finding a question, your teacher will surely help you with the search. He also gives you tips on precisely formulating the question or the title of your work.

You can also get inspiration from reading the relevant literature and looking at other academic papers on the chosen subject. In any case, you should consult your teacher when choosing a topic. He can tell you whether your ideas are realistic and can be implemented without too much effort. If you take on too much, writing quickly becomes no longer fun.

Sample topics

Sample topics for your specialist work

Basically, there are no limits to your imagination when choosing a topic. Once you have decided on a subject, that limits the choice a bit. Here we present a few selected topics for different subjects. These are very general topics that you have to adapt individually and pack into a question:

Examples for the subject biology:

  • Diseases such as high blood pressure, Alzheimer’s, Down syndrome
  • doping
  • hygiene
  • Hormones
  • Importance of crops

Examples for chemistry:

  • Nuclear medicine
  • Iodine number of fats and oils
  • Importance of vitamin C in certain foods

Examples for the subject German:

  • Film analyzes
  • Novel analyzes
  • Drama analyzes
  • Media behavior
  • punctuation
  • spelling, orthography

Examples for geography:

  • Tourism development in a specific place
  • Structural change in mining
  • Demographic developments in a specific area

Examples of history:

  • Architectural history
  • Traffic history
  • Contemporary history
  • History of the Jewish population at a specific point in time
  • The world of gods in the Middle Ages for a certain ethnic group

Examples for the subject art:

  • Analysis of the architecture of a particular building
  • Biography of an artist
  • Role of female artists at a specific time
  • photography
  • graffiti

Tips for building your specialist thesis

Tips for building your specialist thesis

There are a few things to consider when writing a specialist thesis. It is important that you make it clear to yourself right from the start how your work should be structured. If you determine a structure in advance,  you will orient  yourself on it during the writing process and you will make fewer mistakes. We have put together a few tips for you that you can use as a guide when setting up the work.

Create an outline

As a first step, you should come up with an outline for your work. You determine the structure of the content, structure your work and avoid forgetting important points during the writing process. In the structure, you structure your work into individual chapters , which have further sub-items as required.

If you create the outline right at the beginning, you will keep an overview. An outline serves as a framework on which your work is based. It gives you support during the research and writing process. It is quite possible that changes will occur over time because you gain new knowledge or the results of your experiment or your survey are completely different than expected. In such a case, just adjust your outline.

Prepare cover sheet

Prepare cover sheet

It does not matter whether you design your cover sheet right at the beginning or after you have finished writing your thesis. But it is important that you give yourself enough time. The cover sheet should contain all the information about your work and yourself. This includes the following information:

  • the title of the work
  • the subject in which you are submitting the work
  • your name
  • your grade level
  • the name of the supervising teacher
  • the date on which you submit the work

You prefer to do without bright colors and unnecessary information. The cover sheet should be designed as clearly as possible . If you are unsure what the cover sheet should look like, ask your teacher or older students for a template. So, if you use the word processing program Word, you will also find templates for a cover sheet there. If you click on it, you can immediately use the templates for your work.

Optional: write a preface

Your thesis does not necessarily need a foreword. If you want to go into more detail about the topic, you have the opportunity to do so in the introduction. However, if problems arose in the course of the research and writing process , it can make sense to explain them in a foreword. The best thing to do is to talk to your teacher about this.

If you have decided on a foreword, you have to put it at the very beginning of your work , before the table of contents. You can write the foreword from a first-person perspective and make personal comments . This is not allowed in the rest of the work.

Prepare a table of contents

Prepare a table of contents

If you have already created an outline, the step to the table of contents is not difficult. Basically, you simply transfer the individual points of your outline into a directory and provide them with the appropriate page numbers . You can of course only add these at the end, as you don’t know at the beginning how long the individual chapters will be.

Write an introduction

The introduction is the first section of the written part of your thesis. Even here you should pay attention to a scientific writing style. Avoid colloquial language and filler words as well as long and complicated sentences. You formulate your entire technical work in the present tense , unless it is about past events that you want to emphasize.

The introduction should only make up a small part of your work, a maximum of ten percent . In this section of the thesis you introduce your readers to the topic, present your research methods and announce your approach step by step. It is also important that you formulate a goal that you want to achieve with your work.

Write the main part

Write the main part of the thesis

This is the most important part of your thesis and therefore takes up the most space. Around 80 percent of your specialist work should consist of the main part. The task of this part is to answer the research question of your work . To do this, you use literary sources or evaluate the results of an experiment or a survey.

Your opinion always plays a role. However, you have to be able to substantiate this with sources. The best way to clarify your views is with different arguments. In addition, you should take a critical stance and not accept everything as it is formulated in the literature. Your task is to evaluate the literature used or to interpret your test or survey results. Question different statements and check their plausibility .

Write a conclusion

The conclusion forms the conclusion of the written part of your work. In it you summarize the most important results of your work again. Try to keep it as short as possible, but still formulate your findings precisely. The conclusion should be about as long as your introduction.

When writing the conclusion, think for yourself what the most important findings of your work are and how they will help to answer your research question. Here you also have the opportunity to go back to your self-set goal and give an outlook on possible further work on the topic .

Prepare a bibliography

The bibliography is very important

The bibliography follows the written part of the thesis. In it you list all sources used in alphabetical order . You make your sources recognizable on the one hand in the running text or as a footnote, on the other hand again in detail in the bibliography. You can’t leave out any source. Internet sources also belong in the directory. It is important that you provide information about the author, the title of the book or article, the publisher and the year of publication.

Incidentally, the bibliography is given a page number and appears in the table of contents. However, it does not count towards the specified scope of your work. Make sure to keep a consistent citation style . If you are unsure what the bibliography should look like, please consult your teacher about this.

Writing A Thesis: 9 Tips & 7 Typical Mistakes (+ Examples)

Add a declaration of independence

When you have finished your work, you add a declaration of independence at the end of the line. In it you declare that you wrote the work yourself and that you have given all sources used. This declaration protects you from plagiarism . The declaration assumes that you have identified all sources in advance. If you don’t, your teacher will most likely find out and you won’t pass the work.

Typical mistakes when writing a technical paper

There are some mistakes that you should avoid

There are a few things you can do wrong when writing a thesis. Most of them are very easy to avoid. Care is of the essence when writing a technical paper. If you give yourself enough time to calmly check how you have designed and structured your work, you will avoid many mistakes. You should definitely avoid the following things when writing a thesis.

Make the cover sheet at the last minute

The cover sheet is the first thing your teacher will see of your thesis. So it is definitely not a good idea to postpone the design of the cover sheet to the last few minutes before submission. Allow enough time for the design , because the first impression counts. If your teacher makes specifications for the cover sheet, you must absolutely adhere to them. If you don’t, you will likely be deducted points.

Do not structure the table of contents

The table of contents should give an overview of what you are dealing with in your work. Make sure that you structure it in an understandable way. You have to double-check basic things like formatting and the corresponding page numbers at the end. It would be very annoying if you make mistakes in this regard.

Also make sure that the headings of individual chapters are named the same in the running text as in the table of contents. If you make changes in the running text , you must also transfer them to the table of contents . In any case, it is a good idea to read the table of contents again shortly before submitting it and to check the page numbers.

Don’t divide chapters sensibly

The division of the chapters should definitely make sense and be understandable. It often happens that a chapter only has one sub-item. You should definitely avoid that. Each section must have at least two sub-points . If you can’t think of any suitable sub-items for a particular point, leave the chapter without sub-items.

Take text formatting lightly

Don’t take text formatting lightly

Once you have completed the content-related part of your thesis, you will probably want to hand it in immediately. But the look also plays a decisive role in the awarding of grades. So you shouldn’t make any mistakes when formatting the text. Often there are guidelines from the school that you should adhere to. In any case, you have to make your work consistent.

Use too few sources

Research is an important part of your specialist work. In no case can you refer to only one or two sources. Always check information for correctness and inform yourself comprehensively . There aren’t too many sources, but there are too few. If your teacher sees that you have done a lot of research, it will have a positive effect on your grade. By the way, you will not only find it on the Internet. There are books on many topics in special specialist libraries. If necessary, your teacher can give you tips on this topic.

Read More

Writing Minutes: 6 Ways & 9 Tips For Taking Notes (+ template)

Hypothesis: 4 Types + Interpretation Hypothesis Explained In 3 Steps

Write Characterization: Structure, 5 Features & 3 Examples

Incorrect labeling of quotations

Your work lives from research and reference to basic sources. Make sure you quote correctly from the sources. If you are copying something from another author, you have to indicate this. This is done using footnotes and the bibliography of your work. You are also not allowed to simply copy literal paraphrases. If you are unsure how to quote correctly, ask your teacher for advice. There are different ways of quoting.

Not proofreading

Ask friends for help

Even if you want to hand in your work as quickly as possible, it is important that it is proofread. Ask your parents or friends to read your paper and point out any errors in content or form.

You have been busy with the work for a longer period of time and have read the text so often that you may not even notice small mistakes. It is often helpful if an outsider reads your work with a neutral eye. This way, errors may be noticed that you can correct before submitting the form.

Writing Minutes: 6 Ways & 9 Tips For Taking Notes (+ template)

Writing Minutes: 6 Ways & 9 Tips For Taking Notes (+ template)

At a team meeting in the office, a seminar at the university, or in class, there are many situations in which minutes are being written. We present different types and give tips that will make writing particularly easy for you. You will know about writing minutes in 6 ways & 9 tips for taking notes (+ template)

Writing minutes is a task that most people like to avoid. If you have to take minutes of a meeting or the course of a meeting, it means: absolute concentration. You shouldn’t wallow in thought during the conversation and should take some notes. Basically, writing the log is not as bad as its reputation. In the following, we will give you tips that will help you quickly and easily create a good protocol.

Protocol: There are these types

There are these types of logs

There are many good reasons for writing logs. At important meetings and team meetings, well-written minutes provide a comprehensive summary of the decisions made. In this way, those involved can check individual points retrospectively and obtain information if they have forgotten something.

In addition, employees who did not take part in the meeting are kept up to date with the help of a protocol . Oral transmission of the events is usually incomplete and takes too long. Even if there are discrepancies after a meeting, the protocol is used. It precisely states what was decided by whom.

But a protocol is not just a protocol. Because there are many different types. Most often you will be dealing with two types, namely the  results log and the progress log. In addition, there are also hourly protocols, experimental protocols, verbatim protocols and memory protocols, among other things. The type of log depends on what is recorded in it. In general, when writing a protocol, you should make sure to include only important information and leave out what is superfluous.

Results protocol

As the name suggests, you only record the results of a conversation or a team meeting in a results log. The result log is very compact and can be read more quickly than a progress log. In this document, everyone involved can understand which decisions were made in a meeting and which tasks were assigned. If several decisions are to be made in a conference or discussion, the minutes of the results are a good choice.

History log / conversation log

You record individual speeches in a progress or conversation log

In a progress log, you concentrate on the course of the conversation and any decisions made. So you refer to different speeches in the minutes, record discussions and highlight arguments and counter-arguments. This type of protocol is useful if results are to be achieved through discussions during a meeting. On the basis of the speeches, all those involved can understand the decisions at a later point in time.

Verbatim protocol

Basically, this is also a progress log, but if possible you should reproduce the entire wording of a meeting . This type of logging is particularly popular in court hearings. After all, in a situation like this, every detail counts. When creating verbatim transcripts, it is imperative that you adhere to all common citation rules.

Hour protocol

Create hourly protocol

You come across this type of protocol at school or university. It is a mixture of results log and progress log . In a lesson protocol you record what is discussed in a school lesson or a seminar at the university and what new knowledge is gained.

Test protocol

Test protocols are always linked to scientific experiments . In it you document the implementation of an experiment, your observations and, if necessary, the results. So, in research, these protocols are very important so that other scientists can understand the experiment and check the knowledge gained from it.

In an experimental protocol, you first state the subject of the experiment and make an initial guess as to what result the experiment will bring. It is also important that you describe the materials used and precisely document the structure and implementation of the experiment. Furthermore, you record observations, for example measured values, and also include an evaluation of the results in the protocol. If you make mistakes during the experiment, you also have the option of carrying out a written error analysis in the protocol .

Memory log

This type of protocol is rarely used because it is not very reliable . As the name suggests, with a memory protocol you reconstruct the course of a meeting from your memory. This is not a chronological transcript, but a retrospective summary of content and decisions.

Write tips for the minutes

Write tips for the minutes

A transcript records important information from discussions, team meetings or seminars. In order for everyone involved to benefit from a protocol afterwards, you have to pay attention to a few things when preparing it. It is important that you work carefully and be focused on what you are doing . Otherwise you will get stressed, quickly lose track and feel overwhelmed. In the following we have put together valuable tips to make it easier for you to write the minutes.

Create a template

You will make your work a lot easier if you create a template for your minutes before the start of the meeting. In it you enter all the information you know . If you save the template, you have the option to use it again the next time or to pass it on to your colleagues. They will surely be grateful to you.

Separate the important from the unimportant

Even during the transcript, you should make sure that only relevant information is included in your protocol. It doesn’t matter what kind of protocol you write. If you are unsure whether information is important or not, record it in the log. In no case do you have to write down everything that is said word for word. That wouldn’t even be possible. In between, make it clear to yourself what the goal of the meeting is and whether you have recorded all the important information in relation to it.

Write in bullet points

Keywords are helpful

So that you don’t lose the thread and keep up, it makes sense to log in key words. It would take too long to write whole sentences . Make sure, however, to formulate the key words in such a way that you still know what the conversation was about when drafting the minutes.

Use abbreviations

You save a lot of time if you abbreviate long words. Think in advance what a meeting or conversation will be about. There may be words that keep coming up and for which you can think of an abbreviation. When writing minutes, it is very important to save as much time as possible . If you write out every single word, you will most likely not keep up with a heated discussion.

Ask if anything is unclear

Don’t be afraid to ask questions

If a term comes up during the discussion that is unclear to you or if you do not even understand the whole context, you must definitely ask. Shyness is out of place here. You can’t feel uncomfortable asking questions. In order for the minutes to contain all the important information, it is of crucial importance that the minute-taker can follow the conversation without any problems .

Stay objective

If you do not agree with certain aspects of the conversation or decisions that are made in a meeting, you can express your concerns aloud, but you must not quietly record them in the minutes. As a recorder, it is your job to report objectively about the events and, if necessary, to record the results without comment .

If you express your discomfort out loud and your opinion is part of the discussion in the following, you will of course include it in the minutes. Incidentally, emotional reactions to decisions made by participants in the meeting have just as little place in the minutes as the subjective opinions of the person taking the minutes.

Avoid misunderstandings

After the discussion has ended, it makes sense to find out from the discussion leader again whether you have recorded the result correctly. In this way you avoid misunderstandings and can clear up any ambiguities.

Use a laptop

If possible, log on the laptop

It is always a good idea to keep the log on a laptop. So you are flexible and have the opportunity to add points afterwards if the conversation turns unexpectedly. If you write on paper, the page may already be filled and you lose track.

If you still prefer to use pen and paper, you should always leave enough space between individual points. This gives you the opportunity to make additions at a later date .

Complete the protocol as soon as possible

When the meeting is over, your work as a note taker is not done yet. Now it is time to revise the notes and finalize the protocol. If possible, you should n’t delay doing this . If you start the revision right away, you will still remember exactly what was said. This will make it easier for you to formulate the protocol.

This information belongs in the log

There is some information that should not be missing from any log. First and foremost, this includes, of course, all the important key data for the relevant meeting, conversation or seminar. It is best to place this right at the top of the page, in the so-called protocol header. This includes the following information:

  • Date of the meeting
  • Place of meeting
  • People present
  • Name of the secretary
  • theme

You have now successfully written down the formalities of the protocol. Then, depending on the type of minutes, you go into individual discussion points, record comments, decisions and open questions. If there are plans for further action, these should also be included in your protocol. The protocol closes with your signature . Ideally, you will also ask the chairperson of the meeting for his or her signature. If there are attachments , such as handouts or the like, attach them to the protocol.

Writing Minutes: 6 Ways & 9 Tips For Taking Notes (+ template)

Sample of a report of results

You record the most important decisions in the result protocol

As the name suggests, you record the results, key messages and most important decisions of an event in a result protocol. A good strategy is to sort individual aspects according to general terms during the conversation . Then you have less work to do later and you can immediately see which points are important. If there is a match between statements from different participants, you summarize them. You don’t even need to write down digressions and unnecessary statements. That saves you a lot of work afterwards.

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Hypothesis: 4 Types + Interpretation Hypothesis Explained In 3 Steps

Write Characterization: Structure, 5 Features & 3 Examples

Write A Conclusion: Structure, 3 Tips & 4 Typical Mistakes

You should refrain from a chronological reproduction of the events in a result protocol. Write the minutes in the present tense and give individual aspects in note form in a logical order . You start the results protocol with a protocol header. If there is a schedule, add it afterwards. Then you record the results of the meeting in a factual and objective tone. The protocol closes with your signature. You can also make a table for a better overview. If necessary, you add attachments. In the following we present you two samples of result logs:

Employee interview on xx.xx.xxxx

  • theme
  • place
  • Attendees
  • management
  • Name of the secretary
  • Investments

Planned process: point 1, point 2, 3

1. One point:

  • Decisions:
  • Proceed further:
  • Responsibility:
  • Time schedule:

2. Two point:

  • Decisions:
  • Proceed further:
  • Responsibility:
  • Time schedule:

3. Point 3:

  • Decisions:
  • Proceed further:
  • Responsibility:
  • Time schedule:


Alternatively, you can also display the individual points of the session in a table . So every participant can see immediately what has been decided. You put the protocol header in front of the table and put your signature under it. Such a table looks like this, for example:

 Point 1Point 2point 3
Proceed further
Time schedule

Submission of a progress log

Template for a progress log

You record the course of a meeting or a discussion with the individual speeches in a log. Nevertheless, in this case too you have to limit yourself to the most important points, otherwise the protocol will be far too long. The difference to the result protocol is that you respond to the individual speeches of those present, provided that they are relevant to the goal of the meeting.

When logging, you must not ignore the time recording . So it does play a role who said what when. You write the progress protocol in the present tense and reproduce speeches in the indirect speech.

Like all other logs, you start the progress log with a log header . This contains the key dates of the meeting. Pre- determined agenda items follow , if they exist. In the further course you will record the resolutions and how they came about. At the end you sign the protocol and add any attachments. A history log could look like this:

Employee interview on xx.xx.xxxx

  • place
  • Attendees
  • management
  • Name of the secretary
  • Agenda: 1st; 2.; 3.

Agenda item 1:

  • Description of the current situation of X
  • Inquiries from Y
  • Suggestion from Z
  • poll
  • decision

Agenda item 2:

  • Description of the situation of X
  • Suggestion from Y
  • Pro of Z
  • Contra of X
  • poll
  • decision

Agenda item 3:

  • Topics for the next session
  • date proposed


Hypothesis: 4 Types + Interpretation Hypothesis Explained In 3 Steps

Hypothesis: 4 Types + Interpretation Hypothesis Explained In 3 Steps

In German lessons, in scientific work or in mathematics – there are many areas in which you will encounter hypotheses. We explain what this is all about and give tips on building an interpretation hypothesis. You will also learn what to look for when formulating scientific hypotheses. Here, we will tell hypothesis with 4 types & interpretation hypothesis explained in 3 steps.

Definition of hypothesis

What a hypothesis actually is

The term hypothesis comes from the Latin word “hypothesis”, which translates as “assumption”. With the help of this translation, you may already understand what this linguistic phenomenon is about. In a hypothesis you formulate an assumption that you assume to be correct , but which you cannot prove. Only assumptions that can be checked count as hypotheses. Once you have made a hypothesis, you then need to use different analysis methods to find out whether the statement is true or not.

Following the analysis, you have either proven or disproved your hypothesis . Depending on which hypothesis you make, you can make its conditions clear with certain statements. Frequent formulations in this context are the following: “Whenever…, then…” or “The more…, the…”.

Types of hypotheses

The interpretation hypothesis is part of the poem analysis

Hypotheses come in many different areas. These are always assumptions that express assumptions about a certain topic . As a student, you have to deal with hypotheses in the subjects German and mathematics.

If you are aiming for a university career , you will also be confronted with hypotheses depending on the subject. You may even deal with it in your bachelor or master thesis. Below we explain what types of hypotheses you should know.

Interpretation hypothesis

Interpretation hypotheses are part of the poem analysis and the interpretation of this text genre. In an interpretation hypothesis, you write down in a few short sentences what the basic message of a poem could be. So you suspect something that can turn out to be wrong in retrospect. But that’s not bad at all. The meaning and purpose of an interpretation hypothesis is to make an assumption that can be confirmed in retrospect or that is refuted. If you have carried out a poem analysis and interpretation, there is the possibility of adapting your interpretation hypothesis accordingly.

You can think of the interpretation hypothesis as a kind of collection of your first impressions . You record in it what comes to mind immediately after reading a poem and then check your thoughts in an analysis and an interpretation. The person who reads your work will get an impression of the direction in which your poem analysis is going on the basis of the interpretation hypothesis.

Scientific hypothesis

In science in general, hypotheses describe a relationship between two or more variables . This refers to comparable objects or events. Before doing a lot of scientific work, you have to formulate one or more hypotheses, as they provide information about your research project and you can orientate yourself on it in the further course.

Hypotheses in Mathematics

There are also hypotheses in mathematics

You will come across hypotheses not only in German lessons and when doing scientific work, but also in mathematics lessons. As a rule, however, you only have to deal with it in high school. This subject is also about unproven assumptions. In the statistics sub-area, hypotheses are used to describe the probabilities of events . You use so-called hypothesis tests to find out whether a hypothesis should be accepted or rejected.

In the hypothesis tests you differentiate between the null hypothesis ” 0 ” and the alternative hypothesis ” 1 “. The null hypothesis indicates the expected result, the alternative hypothesis stands for a deviation from the expected.

Hypotheses in logic

Logic is the teaching of logical conclusions, conclusive thinking or reasoning. There are also hypotheses in this area. You use it to defend a thesis .

Interpretation hypothesis: Instructions in three steps (+ example)

This is how you write an interpretation hypothesis

In German lessons at the upper level, you will definitely come across an interpretation hypothesis at some point. This happens in connection with a poem analysis. In an interpretation hypothesis, you write down your assumptions about the core message of a certain poem. You don’t have to provide any proof, after all, it’s just a guess . After reading a poem, write down your thoughts on the intention of the text.

An interpretation hypothesis consists of only a few sentences . Make sure that you formulate this as clearly and precisely as possible . So the reader of your text immediately has an impression of how you proceed in the poem analysis and which aspects you are focusing on. You place your interpretation hypothesis between the introduction and the main part of your poem analysis.

After you have completed the analysis and interpretation of the poem, at the end of your work you will go back to the interpretation hypothesis. Finally, you point out whether your guess has been confirmed or not . This is very important because otherwise the hypothesis would remain uncommented.

In the following, using the example of the modernized version of the poem “Es ist alles Eitel” (written by Andres Gryphius in 1637), you will learn how to do it best. The interpretation hypotheses formulated here are not generally valid and only serve to illustrate the linguistic phenomenon. The poem by Andreas Gryphius offers many different options for interpretation and leaves room for a wide variety of theses and interpretations.

Hypothesis: 4 Types + Interpretation Hypothesis Explained In 3 Steps


In preparation, you need to read the poem carefully

Before you formulate an interpretation hypothesis, you must of course first deal intensively with the poem . Read the poem over once or twice. You should feel like you can put the key message into words.

If it is a longer poem, it can be very helpful if you take notes in between and record your thoughts . Orientate yourself on the individual stanzas of the poem. Write down keywords during the first reading and check them in a second reading. The poem goes like this:

It’s all vain

You see wherever you look, only vanity on earth.

What this one is building today, that one will tear down tomorrow:

Where there are still cities now, there will be meadows,

On which a shepherd’s child will play with the herds.

What is now still in bloom will soon be trodden down.

What throbbing and defying now is ashes and limbs tomorrow,

nothing is that is eternal, no ore, no marble stone.

Now happiness is laughing at us, soon the complaints are thundering.

The high deeds of fame must pass like a dream.

Should the game of time, the easy man, pass?

Oh! What is all this that we consider delicious

As bad nothingness, as shadow, dust and wind;

As a meadow flower that you won’t find again.

Still not a single person wants to look at what is eternal!

– Andreas Gryphius (1616 – 1664)


This is how you formulate the interpretation hypothesis

Once you have got a first impression of the poem and written down key words, you have to try to express your thoughts in full sentences . Always keep in mind that it is a hypothesis. So it’s just a matter of recording your personal thoughts and assumptions. You formulate the text in your words and do not allow yourself to be inspired by other sources.

Poems are designed to play with your imagination. Everyone perceives them differently and connects different things with a text. This fact is what makes poetry analysis so interesting. You may notice something that your classmates overlooked.

You could formulate the following hypothesis about the poem “It’s all vain”. It relates to the subject of ” transitoriness “:

The basic structure of the poem “It’s all vain” deals with transience on earth. It blames people for it. The poem can be read as a complaint, but it is not a direct accusation. A sign of this is the reserved language, which is expressed in soft-sounding verses.

Or maybe you got a completely different impression while reading. For example, you might have a more abstract interpretation idea that works figuratively. An alternative interpretation hypothesis with reference to the topic ” Search for eternity ” is also possible:

The poem “It’s all vain” deals with the search for eternity and rules out this phenomenon on earth. The author uses a theme that was used very often in the baroque era, namely transience. Since, in his opinion, nothing lasts on earth, he hopes to find eternity after death.

Both hypotheses of interpretation are justified if you refer to them in the following poem analysis . You must not hypothesize unless you plan to analyze the poem in light of it. You have to check what you suspect in the hypothesis at a later point in time. This is the only way you can formulate a statement in relation to your hypothesis.


In the last step you check your hypothesis

Once you have formulated your interpretation hypothesis, the foundation for the subsequent poem analysis has been laid. In the analysis, it is now important that you either confirm or refute your assumptions from the interpretation hypothesis. To do this, you have to give sufficient reasons for your hypotheses in the analysis . So it is not so easy to say whether an interpretation is right or wrong. Basically, that doesn’t matter. As long as you underpin your assumptions with excerpts from the poem, they are valid and justified.

The actual analysis follows in a flowing transition according to the interpretation hypothesis. You can only finally determine whether the hypothesis turns out to be true or false after analyzing and interpreting the poem. After you have formulated the hypothesis, you examine the poem very carefully in the following analysis. You should pay attention to even the smallest details . It is important that you on the meter , the different stylistic devices and the rhyme scheme comest and looking these characteristics with respect to your hypothesis.

Once the analysis has been completed, the text is interpreted. In doing so, you interpret individual components of the poem and bring your findings into an overall context . At this point it becomes clear to what extent your guesses from the interpretation hypothesis hold up or not.

This is how you make scientific hypotheses

Make scientific hypotheses

In a scientific paper, you usually set up a hypothesis at the beginning, which will be used as a basis for your work. How exactly the hypothesis is structured naturally depends on your subject and the respective topic. However, it is always a purposeful scientific claim, the truth of which you check with your work .

So you first formulate one or more general assumptions about your research subject that you would like to investigate in the course of the work. If you plan to write a doctoral thesis , you usually present your working hypotheses in the synopsis. These also serve to highlight your general interest in the topic and to give the supervising professor an insight into your research project.

To do this, you formulate one or more specific but general assumptions that clearly show how you want to implement your research project. The goal of your work then is to confirm or override these assumptions with the help of analysis or other research methods.

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Advantages of scientific hypotheses

The advantage of working hypotheses in science is that you reduce your interest in a topic to the essentials. This means that your project is given a structure that you can use as a guide even before the writing process begins . Hypotheses also help you decide on a specific research tool.

In contrast to a thesis , hypotheses connect two different aspects and establish a relationship . A thesis is just a claim that needs proof. How exactly a thesis should look is not clearly defined.

So that you don’t lose track of things while researching and writing, your working hypotheses must be clearly formulated . If you are not convinced of your hypotheses yourself, you should definitely revise them before you start writing. If you are unsure how to best optimize it, ask your supervising professor for help.

In addition, of course, you also need a  research question that represents something like the central theme of your work and forms the context. Within the context there are then certain phenomena that you relate to each other with your hypotheses.

You have to pay attention to this

You have to pay attention to this

There are a few things to look out for when formulating your scientific hypotheses. First of all, the reader needs to understand exactly how you derived the assumptions. Make absolutely sure that there are no contradictions , not even in the wording.

In addition, your hypotheses must be general . Although many formulations in scientific work come across as extravagant and complicated, you should put your hypotheses in words as briefly and concisely as possible. So your reader immediately understands what you are getting at and recognizes what you want to deal with in your work.

Write Characterization: Structure, 5 Features & 3 Examples

Write Characterization: Structure, 5 Features & 3 Examples

A characterization summarizes the most important characteristics of a character in a novel. It includes both external and internal characteristics. We will help you further with the most important characterization features, a detailed structure, numerous adjectives for description, and examples for illustration. Write characterization & structure is easier.

A characterization is needed in school in German or English lessons and sometimes even later in studies. Whether essay, exam, or scientific paper – we have put together everything you need to know so that you can quickly and successfully write a characterization.

Definition of a characterization

Characterization: a definition

Although the terms “characterization” and “person description” are often used interchangeably, there is a big difference. A person’s description relates to the external characteristics of a person (such as clothing, body, facial expressions, gestures ). At the same time, a characterization also includes internal characteristics (such as thoughts, feelings, character traits).

A characterization, therefore, serves to make the appearance and essence of a figure tangible. It can help you describe the relationships between the characters or make predictions actions of the respective character. Character development is also included. In an interpretation or an essay, a characterization can help you underpin your arguments.

Direct and indirect characterization in the text

The figures in a text can characterize either directly or indirectly. In a direct characterization, either the narrator, another character, or even your character describes their character. For example: “Lila has always been moody.” From this statement, the character trait emerges directly: Lila is a moody person who quickly changes his mood.

With indirect characterization, you can interpret a person’s characteristics using their indirect signals. It means expressions of the person himself as well as feelings and thoughts. For example: “I was concerned about going to the school ball. Afterward, someone wants to talk to me, or worse: someone asks me to dance.” From this statement, you can deduce that the speaker is insecure, shy of contact, and does not like to dance.

Structure and content of a characterization

Before you start your characterization, you should mark all the places that give clues to the character traits of the selected figure. You can also use sticky notes to memorize the relevant pages and make short notes. Always add the page number to notes so that you can find your examples again afterward.

Characterization aims to find hidden character traits, establish interpersonal relationships, uncover contradictions, and represent the development of the figure in an understandable manner. In this way, you can also make possible prognoses for the further development of the plot.

Build up a characterization


The introduction of the characterization always begins with an introductory sentence. In this, you should state the type of text, the author, the title of the work, the year of publication, & the subject of the work. In a second sentence, you can also briefly introduce the character you are looking at more closely.


The main part of the characterization divides into an outside view and an inside view. Always start with the external characteristics of the person. First, you can name characteristics of appearance, say something about the social situation, and finally, describe the language and behavior you can see from the outside. Sometimes it is more appropriate to start with the social situation first. That always depends on the focus of your characterization.

Then you go to the inside view. Why does the person behave the way they do? What thoughts and goals does she have? How is it influenced by society or its environment? Also, dedicate yourself to the character’s relationship with the other characters and note whether there has been a development. Thus the character is dynamic and complex or whether the character is static and simple. Here you can find all the important points of the main part at a glance:

Outside view:

  • Appearance (age, gender, height, physique, gait, hair color, facial features, facial expressions, gestures, scars, moles, jewelry, clothing)
  • Social situation (origin, education, social milieu, circle of friends, family, relationship, job, social position)
  • Language (communication situation, way of speaking, part of the conversation)
  • External action (visible behavior, reactions to the environment, habits, activities)
  • Social impact (apparent impact of the figure on its environment)

Inside view:

  • Inner action (thoughts, motives, goals, inner conflicts, emotional world)
  • Social influence (external factors that influence the thinking and behavior of the character)
  • Role within the person constellation (relationship to other people, dramaturgical function)
  • Development (change of character, dynamic/round or static character)


Finally, you can briefly summarize your observations and give your own opinion. Both criticism and praise are allowed here. You should also evaluate how important the person and their relationship with other people are to the overall work.

Writing a characterization: 5 important features.

Writing a characterization: Note these five characteristics

You should always make sure to adhere to the five characteristics of a characterization. They concern the choice of the right time and order and the correct quotation, clear language, and the contribution of your personal opinion. Read through the following characteristics before you start writing your characterization.

1. A characterization is always written in the present or perfect tense.

You describe the text and the figure in the current state. Therefore, you should primarily use the present tense: “The character Linda is shy and very thoughtful.” In some cases, the perfect tense is also suitable: “Linda has learned to get rid of her shyness and has become more self-confident .”

2. In the main part, the external characteristics are described first, then the internal ones.

This order is important because the reader first looks at the person’s physical appearance before assigning characteristics to them. You can also play with the reader’s expectations if certain external features do not match the cliché of character traits. Make sure to make paragraphs visually separate the different perspectives on the figure and make your text more comfortable for the reader.

3. It contains quotations as evidence of your arguments.

The statements that you make during the characterization must substantiate with examples from the text. You can use a direct quote in quotation marks as an example or substantiate your statement with a comparison in the text. In any case, you have to make it clear where you are taking the example from.

To do this, write the page number and the line in brackets after your quote. For a direct quote, you write, for example: (p. 12, line 3). You can also add an indirect quote with “cf.” (= compare) provided, so like this: (see p. 12, line 3).

4. The language is clear and contains many adjectives to describe it.

Since characterization aims to make a character as tangible as possible, you need a lot of adjectives and comparisons. So you can create a comprehensible picture of your figure. In the following chapter, we have collected different adjectives to describe a person externally and internally.

5. There is no personal evaluation in the introduction and main part.

You should always save your own opinion until the end when characterizing. Even if you are using very figurative language, it is important to be objective in the body. In the final part, you can then express criticism, evaluate the development, the relationships, or the character itself, and emphasize its importance for the work.

Helpful adjectives for characterization

Adjectives for a personal description and characterization

In this chapter, you will find some helpful adjectives for characterization. They relate to both the outside view ( person description ) and the inside view and offer you examples of how you can describe a person. We then have three text examples that intend to illustrate what a characterization can look like.

Adjectives to describe the person (outside perspective)

  • External appearance:
  • elegant, neat, tasteful, stylish, extravagant, conspicuous, youthful, feminine, boyish, unkempt, inconspicuous, strong, stocky fleshy, muscular, delicate, thin, pale, tanned, rosy, freckled, large, small, expressionless, Thoughtful, affected, female, male, brown-haired, blonde, black-haired, red-haired, fashionable, unfashionable, natural, made up, sporty, playful
  • Body language:
  • graceful, graceful, casual, relaxed, easy, hectic, nervous, agile, brisk, energetic, artificial, exaggerated, resolute
  • Language:
  • colloquial, dialect, talkative, quiet, taciturn, speaking slowly or quickly, colloquial, vulgar, coarse, cultured, formal, scientific, thoughtful, elected, communicative, extroverted, introverted

Adjectives to describe character traits (inner view)

  • Nature:
  • melancholic, depressive, shy, level-headed, peaceful, fearful, timid, choleric, hysterical, quick-tempered, adapted, irritable, aggressive, impulsive, spirited, optimistic, pessimistic, lively, restless, calm, serious, humorous, attentive, selfish, social, indignant, spontaneous, authoritarian, submissive
  • Character traits:
  • vain, conceited, arrogant, haughty, down to earth, modest, polite, independent, dependent, indecisive, hesitant, determined, dominant, strong-willed, self-determined, cool, loving, empathetic, charming, honest, dishonest, self-confident, insecure, open, prejudiced, curious, responsible

Three examples of characterization

In this chapter, you will find three examples of characterization. We have characterized well-known characters to whom assignments often give in school. First, you will find a characterization of Tschick from the book of the same name by Wolfgang Herrndorf. Then we characterized Anne Frank with the help of her diary and finally Dr. Faust from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s “Faust I.” They serve as an inspiration and help you to write a successful characterization yourself.

Characterization of Andrej Tschichatschow from “Tschick”

Characterization of “Tschick” in Herrndorf’s “Tschick” (2010)

The novel “Tschick” by Wolfgang Herrndorf from 2010 is about the two boys Maik and Tschick, who, despite great social differences, go on a trip to Wallachia and become close friends.

The protagonist Andrej Tschichatschow, aka “Tschick,” is a fictional character. He is 14 years old and originally from Rostov in Russia (see pp. 42, 98, 106). He has been living with his brother in a skyscraper in Berlin for four years, where he initially went to special needs school but learned German so well that he is now attending grammar school (see p. 45). Because of his mother tongue, he has a Russian accent in German (cf. ibid.). Through his brother, he already had experience with shoplifting, selling stolen goods, and fraud.

Write Characterization: Structure, 5 Features & 3 Examples

He is of medium height, has an angular head with high cheekbones and Asian eyes (see p. 42). He also has strong forearms and thin legs (see p. 44). Until Maik gives him new clothes, he always wears an old white shirt that is missing a button, worn-out shoes, and cheap jeans (see p. 42). His school bag is a plastic bag. His new clothes consist of jeans, a gray jacket, and sunglasses (see p. 92.)

On his first visit to the new class at high school, he appears unfriendly to his classmates and makes no friends. He regularly comes to school drunk, which causes his grades to fluctuate significantly (see pp. 47, 51). It is locked and does not allow anyone to get near it, so there are many rumors about it. Not everyone gets along with his or her direct nature either. The high school students make fun of him.

He approaches Maik for the first time about his dragon jacket (see p. 61). Over time, they become friends. Tschick tells Maik in confidence that he is homosexual (see p. 213f.). He usually jokes about gays, suggesting that he feels ashamed and inferior because of it (see p. 77). His reluctance and insecurity, which he tries to cover up with his style, suggest this. Another vote of confidence is that Tschick takes the blame at the trial to protect Maik (see p. 235). He sacrifices himself and has to go to a home.

Thus Tschick turns out to be a character with positive and negative traits. He is a dynamic character who is changing from a rather skeptical and closed person to a true friend who can trust and stand up for Maik. The upbringing of his brother and the criminal treatment hurt the sensitive boy.

Characterization of Anne Frank from the “Diary of Anne Frank”

The “Diary of Anne Frank” has been translated into 70 languages

The “Diary of Anne Frank” was kept by Anne Frank from June 12, 1942, to August 1, 1944, during the persecution of the Jews in World War II and published from 1947 in various revised and abridged versions. The Jewish girl, who was thirteen at the beginning, tells of her thoughts and life with her family in a secret building where they have to hide.

Anne is tall with light, freckled skin and dark hair and eyes. She wears her hair shoulder length and mostly open. She has a pointed chin with a dimple and small dimples in her cheeks. Mostly she wears a simple knee-length skirt and a blouse. She comes from a wealthy family, is well brought up, always polite and cheerful. Also, she has a good relationship with her father, she gets along less well with her mother, but she respects her. She is more like friends to her and her sister.

After receiving her diary “Kitty” for her thirteenth birthday, she first reports on her everyday life; about the family, school and boys (see pp. 24, 26, 28). When the family has to hide in the secret annex and can no longer get out, they hold onto their thoughts and feelings there. The Franks only live with the bare essentials in a confined space and can only run water at certain times. Nevertheless, Anne likes it in the apartment.

Her diary shows that she has a versatile vocabulary and a lot of imagination. In addition, she writes very clearly and in detail. She is lively and intelligent, but her character is sometimes quite ambivalent. Sometimes she is reserved and very friendly, but she can also be cheeky and mean. She is also stubborn and jealous of her sister (see p. 41). Despite her zest for life, she is sometimes melancholy; feels misunderstood and alone. In addition, she deals with her situation of not being allowed out of the house and not being able to contact the outside world, which makes her sad. She confides in her diary because she has the feeling that she cannot talk to anyone else.

Overall, you can see character development from an insecure girl to a self-confident young woman. Anne Frank never loses her courage and gives herself, and her family hopes that one day they will no longer have to hide. Despite family problems and a tragic fate, everyone sticks together. On August 4, 1944, the house was stormed, and Anne and her sister were taken to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. After hard physical work, they both die of typhoid in February / March. Anne’s father, Otto Frank, is the only survivor of the family. Anne is still an idol and icon today, which keeps the memory of a terrible time that should never repeat itself.

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Characterization of Dr. Heinrich Faust from Goethe’s “Faust I”

Characterization of “Faust” from Goethe’s “Faust. The first part of the tragedy.” (1808)

The drama “Faust. The first part of tragedy ”by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, published in Weimarer Klassik in 1808, is about Doctor Heinrich Faust. He devotes himself to the devil to satisfy his thirst for knowledge.

Faust is a fifty-year-old universal scholar who carries out scientific research in medicine, law, philosophy, and theology (cf. v. 354ff.). However, science does not know what the meaning of life is.

In the drama, he embodies less an individual than a type who is supposed to point out the aims and man’s mistakes. This is already visible in the prologue, in which God & the devil Mephisto make a bet that Faust makes the subject of the experiment. God believes in the good and the virtue in man, and Mephisto affirms their instinctuality.

Faust has a fixed daily routine in which he spends most of the time in his study. So he does not come into much contact with his environment and perceives the narrow room as a “dungeon” (v. 398). His character is characterized above all by his urge to know, to know “what holds the world together in its innermost being” (v. 382f.).

He is a rational, very self-centered person who is not very patient due to his strong desire for knowledge. This desire even drives him so far that he considers taking his own life and arriving at “new spheres of pure activity” (v. 704). Social interaction is less of his strengths, and neither is dealing with women. So far, he has not dealt with his instinctuality and is constantly coming into conflict with it.

After entering into a pact with Mephisto, after numerous temptations, he realizes that he has to deal with both sides of man, both instinctiveness and reason, to gain satisfaction and recognize meaning in life. The science that has just been learned is not sufficient for this.

Write A Conclusion: Structure, 3 Tips & 4 Typical Mistakes

Write A Conclusion: Structure, 3 Tips & 4 Typical Mistakes

The conclusion of a text is important for its overall impression. It rounds off the text and summarizes key results. In the following you will find out what significance the conclusion has for your text, how you manage to formulate a successful conclusion to your work, and which mistakes you should avoid. You will know about write a conclusion, structure.

Definition of conclusion

The term conclusion is derived from the Latin word facit , which means “it does” or “it results” . Other terms or synonyms are résumé , perspectives , outlook or result . The conclusion is an evaluative summary in which a result is usually presented and conclusions are  drawn.

The conclusion is at the end of the text and is an integral part of various types of text. Text types that typically contain a conclusion are scientific papers as homework , bachelor theses and master’s theses in the study or research papers in school. Final reports of any kind, such as an internship report, also end with a conclusion.

Function of the conclusion

The conclusion takes up the questions of the introduction and thus forms a closed framework between the beginning and the end . You should answer all the questions you raised at the beginning there. You can efficiently write a structure of conclusion.

The conclusion is the last part of the text that the reader reads and is therefore particularly important. The information last displayed is particularly easy to remember. This phenomenon is also known as the rezen effect .

Length of the conclusion

One cannot make a general statement about the ideal length of a conclusion. The extent of the conclusion differs depending on the text form. The more extensive and in-depth your text or work is, the more detailed your conclusion should be. The structure of conclusion is important.

In general, your conclusion should be around ten percent of the number of pages in your previous work, but usually no more than two pages. For a term paper of 15 pages, your résumé should be between one and two pages long.

Conclusion with different types of text

Not only the scope, but also the components of the conclusion vary depending on the type of text you are writing it for. Basically, you should differentiate between instructive texts such as scientific papers and communicative texts such as reports and discussions.

Conclusion for scientific work

The conclusion completes your scientific work such as housework , dissertation or master’s thesis from. Although it is at the end of the work, it has a high priority and must not be neglected. However, before you start to write your conclusion, you should briefly think about the elaboration. Make yourself aware that you have completed the research part of your work and are now writing the conclusion.

  • Take the reader’s perspective


Take the reader’s perspective when writing the conclusion

When writing your conclusion, you should make it clear to yourself again who will read it later or to whom it is addressed. You have dealt intensively with the topic of your work over a long period of time and the content appears to you for granted.

So it may seem to you that you are just repeating yourself in your conclusion. But remember that the reader is unlikely to have that in-depth knowledge. It is therefore important to resume the hypothesis developed at the beginning, to present the central findings of your work and finally to answer the research question.

  • Abstract

While you are in the main part of your work on the content level, you write the conclusion a little more distanced. You deal exclusively with your research question objectively and factually.

You only express your personal opinion if it is expressly desired. That depends entirely on your course of study and the specifications of your work.

Components of the conclusion in scientific papers + examples

After you are aware of the perspective you need to take, you begin to actually write your conclusion. It usually contains the following components:

1. Summary of the results

First you come back to your research question and summarize your main findings from the main part. It is important that you can separate the most important points from less important aspects. It is important to write a conclusion & structure.

The aim of the present study was to …

For this purpose …

It turned out that … Because …

As far as the … is concerned, it could be shown on the basis of … that …

On the other hand, it had to be stated that …conclusion-research question

Answer the research question in conclusion

2. Answering the research question

You will then answer your research question based on the results and findings . The reader could theoretically only read the introduction and the conclusion and would still be able to understand the topic and the problem.

The results of the investigation … have confirmed the original hypothesis.

In conclusion, it can be stated that the question of whether … has to be answered in a differentiated manner. On the one hand … On the other hand … Thus …

3. Interpretation of the results

In addition, you should reflect on the results of your work, evaluate them critically and place them in the research context. So show what contribution your scientific work makes to the topic or research area. Compare whether you come to similar or different results as other scientists.

You should also point out what can and cannot be deduced from your work. Also address open questions or existing problems. It is the important part of write a conclusion and structure.

On the other hand, it had to be established that the implementation of … did not lead to a clear result with regard to the connection between … and ….

4. Outlook on possible research fields

Finally, you should give an outlook in your conclusion. To do this, you go beyond the scope of your work and consider which aspects from other, similar research fields could be considered.

This bachelor thesis has made a first research contribution on the topic … Further research could deal more closely with sub-area …

Due to the focus on … it was not possible to go into more detail on … in the context of this bachelor thesis. However, this could offer an important approach for future research.

Write A Conclusion: Structure, 3 Tips & 4 Typical Mistakes

Conclusion in the internship report

conclusion internship report

Write the conclusion & structure of an internship report

There is also a conclusion at the end of reports such as an internship report as part of your studies. In an internship report it is also called reflection .

The aim of the conclusion is to present the internship from your own point of view and to reflect on the results. So you formulate a critical view of your experiences. Just like with academic papers, you have a final discussion on the previous report.

Components of the conclusion in reports + examples

The conclusion of the internship report differs in the components from the conclusion of a scientific paper. It should contain the following elements:

1. Summary of the report

First you briefly summarize your internship report. As an introduction, you can refer to the company and briefly outline the course of the internship. Avoid repeating sentences from the main body of your report.

As part of my studies, I did my internship from … to … in the department … in the company …

2. Discussion of expectations and results

Then respond to your expectations and to what extent they have been met. Make it clear what you imagined before starting the internship and what promises the company made. Then compare in which areas you were allowed to work and what you have learned. Also mention the expectations that went unfulfilled.

If your internship report contains a theoretical part, you should also take it into account in your conclusion. Compare to what extent the theoretical and expected target state differs from your actual experience.

In the following, the most important findings are discussed and my expectations for the internship are reflected.

The job description of the internship is characterized by the points …

The company has always kept these promises.

Another expectation that was important to me was …

3. Answering the question

If you raised a question at the beginning of your internship report, you have to answer it in the conclusion. When answering the question, again take into account your theoretical knowledge, expectations and actual experiences.

4. Reflection

This part of your conclusion is especially important. You present the experiences you made during the internship and evaluate them . So you explain to what extent these experiences were positive or negative for you and why.

Also explain what previous knowledge you were able to use from your studies and what added value the internship brought you.

Overall, I really enjoyed the internship.

… I see in my opinion as needing improvement.

Also, I would rather have …

I especially liked….

During my studies I already… learned what I could apply in my internship.

5. Outlook for further developmentconclusion-outlook

In conclusion, deal with the future outlook on work and studies

Finally, you create an outlook on your internship. Explain whether the internship helped you with your ideas about your future development . Perhaps you have gained insights into whether you would like to work in this area later or whether you would like to specialize in one direction in your further studies. Write a conclusion with the best structure is tricky.

Also address the impact the internship will have on your professional development. Think about whether this has created new or better opportunities.

The internship confirmed to me that… corresponds to my professional expectations.

For my academic career, I see myself confirmed that I am aiming for a master’s degree after completing my bachelor’s degree.

6. Recommendation of the internship company

Finally, you can summarize whether you would recommend the company in which you did the internship. Explain the circumstances under which you consider the internship to be useful.

Overall, I can highly recommend the company for an internship.

Tips for writing the conclusion

Regardless of what type of text you are writing a conclusion for, there are a few rules and tips that you should follow so that you can formulate a successful summary. The following tips will help you to make writing easier and to make the text easier to understand.

Write a conclusion at the end

It makes sense to only write the conclusion at the very end of your text. You should be sure that the main part is complete and contains everything it should contain. Otherwise, there is a risk that further ideas or thoughts will come to you while you are summarizing your results and findings in the conclusion.

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Plan enough time

The conclusion is the last part of the text, but is still an important part. You shouldn’t underestimate the time you need to write your conclusion. In particular, you should take your time answering the research question or hypothesis. If you are pressed for time , you run the risk of writing down the conclusion quickly and just repeating yourself.

Appropriate writing style

Like the rest of the text, the conclusion should be easy to read and easy to understand. The conclusion also includes the fact that it concentrates on the main findings and statements and should therefore be formulated in a particularly understandable manner.

Therefore, you should formulate sentences as short and simple as possible and avoid long, nested sentence constructions. Connections become clear even if you present them in several sentences.

In general, you should also keep the language neutral in your conclusion . Only when it comes to your personal opinion and experiences does it make sense to use the personal pronoun “I” and subjective feelings.

Typical mistakes when writing the conclusion


Avoid typical mistakes when write the structure of conclusion

There are typical mistakes you can make when writing a conclusion. Before you start writing your conclusion, be aware of these mistakes to avoid them from the start.

Repetition of the main part

Be careful not to bluntly repeat the content of the main part. Concentrate on briefly summarizing the main findings .

New content and insights

Under no circumstances should you include new content and insights in your conclusion. Everything that you formulate in your conclusion must have previously been dealt with in the main part .

Empty phrases

Try to avoid empty phrases when writing your conclusion. Of course, it’s not primarily about the conclusion that it is exciting and exciting to read. However, you should use as varied as possible the introduction and transition of sentences in order to improve reading fluency .

Lurid formulations

You should also avoid evaluative formulations such as “obvious” or “self-evident”. Nothing can be taken for granted . So you would assume knowledge of the reader that you cannot assume.